Ask the Expert: Cultural Competency
Written by Jud Laughter, associate professor of English education.
Over the past two years, TPTE faculty members Chonika Coleman-King, an assistant professor of urban multicultural education, Brittany Anderson, an assistant professor of urban education, and Jud Laughter, an associate professor of English education, have worked to develop and deploy cultural competency training for all employees of Knox County schools. In March 2019, Interim Chancellor Wayne T. Davis, announced a plan to require immediate and ongoing cultural competency training for all faculty, staff, and administrators coupled with an expansion of training for students. Together, these initiatives have demonstrated the interest in this area of professional development and training. Below we share some insights from those Theory and Practice in Teacher Education (TPTE) faculty members working to deliver this important training to teachers, faculty, and other members of our educational community.
What is cultural competency?
The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) defines cultural competency as “the capacity to understand, respect, and respond effectively to different students’ cultures, communities, and power dynamics across social groups; integrating personal awareness with a systematic change orientation.” (American Federation of Teachers, 2015)
Let’s unpack that definition.
To understand is to have accurate knowledge about oneself and about other people. To respect is to have a disposition combining openness to different worldviews with the objective of seeing value in others. To respond effectively is to consistently engage in self-reflection and open dialogue with others about how to accomplish common goals. In the ideas of Paulo Freire, cultural competency is a praxis of knowledge (understanding), action (respect), and reflection (effective response) that builds and maintains authentic relationships.
But to what end?
This praxis of cultural competency is aimed at different cultures, communities, and power dynamics. While the AFT focuses on teachers and students, cultural competency is something everyone should develop and employ in any interpersonal or institutional relationship. We each embody a culture and we each come from a community. Those cultures and communities deserve to be understood, respected, and engaged. However, there are power dynamics that seek to disrupt that understanding, respect, and engagement.
Disparities in academic achievement, scholastic discipline, community achievement, and economic and social capital are the results of systemic forces of oppression that must be tackled through ongoing, integrated efforts of diverse coalitions of committed individuals. Cultural competency is not about everyone learning how to be nice to each other. Cultural competency is about tearing down the structures of racism, classism, sexism, heterosexism, cis-sexism, ageism, ableism, and any other -ism that works to privilege some and oppress others.
This goal is the final piece of the definition: integrating personal awareness with a systemic change orientation.
While cultural competency starts with educating the self, its objective is the reorganizing of systems and institutions in ways that are equitable, just, and available to all. Thus, cultural competency is not the result of a single professional development session or freshman orientation but the development of relationships and long-term capacity to address disparities.
Cultural competency is about relationships – how to initiate, build, and maintain relationships across all the demographic barriers and stereotypes built to separate us. While a lot of teachers and teacher educators think about cultural competency in terms of classroom skills and knowledge, it is much more than that. Cultural competency is about a posture of humility and openness to others with an awareness of the systems that prefer to keep us apart.
Citation: American Federation of Teachers Racial Equity Task Force (2015). AFT: Reclaiming the promise of racial equity in education, economics, and our criminal justice system. Washington, DC American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO.
Ask the Expert: What is dyslexia, and why is it getting so much attention currently?
TPTE Department Head, Professor of Special Education and School Psychologist
Overview of Dyslexia
The International Dyslexia Association (2012) provides a comprehensive description of dyslexia:
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Prevalence estimates of dyslexia range from 5% to 20% of the population worldwide. Dyslexia occurs naturally and often has a hereditary component. It may be exacerbated by medical and environmental conditions.
In recent years, laws have passed in over 40 U.S. states that require K-12 schools to screen and/or assess for dyslexia, and require universities to prepare teachers to work with children with dyslexia. A grassroots parent-led group called Decoding Dyslexia has been instrumental in the passage of these laws.
Federal guidelines specify three subtypes of specific learning disabilities in reading: 1) basic reading skills (includes phonetic decoding and sight word recognition); 2) reading fluency, and 3) reading comprehension. Dyslexia is listed as a type of specific learning disability in the federal special education law Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004), but in federal guidelines on how to implement the law, the term specific learning disability is used. Because federal guidelines do not specifically address dyslexia, some state and local education agencies historically have not recognized dyslexia and have not made the connection between dyslexia and specific learning disabilities in reading.
Identifying, Assessing, and Addressing Dyslexia
Some reading experts disagree with using term dyslexia because they fear that the use of labels can be damaging. However, experts from a wide range of fields agree that specific learning disorders, of which dyslexia is the most prominent, are valid disorders. Often, individuals with dyslexia and their caregivers find comfort in understanding the nature of their reading difficulties and in learning about appropriate instructional strategies and accommodations.
Assessment of dyslexia should include a range of cognitive and academic skills including phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, rapid automatic naming, phonics skills, sight word recognition, spelling, reading fluency and reading comprehension. Currently, there is no single assessment to identify dyslexia, although one is under development by Western Psychological Services (Mather, McCallum, Bell & Wendling).
Individuals with dyslexia benefit from explicit, systematic and multisensory instruction. They also benefit from exposure to a language-rich environment with many opportunities to read, to be read to and to talk about what is read. Accommodations can include extended time for testing and text-to-speech software for reading. In her book Overcoming Dyslexia, Yale researcher Sally Shaywitz describes dyslexia as a “weakness in a sea of strengths.” With appropriate education and accommodations, these strengths can emerge.